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Other Releases With These Artists:. Isotope Ensemble Lanthanum Creative Sources. Caeiro attempts to approach Nature from a qualitatively different mode of apprehension; that of simply perceiving an approach akin to phenomenological approaches to philosophy. Poets before him would make use of intricate metaphors to describe what was before them; not so Caeiro: his self-appointed task is to bring these objects to the reader's attention, as directly and simply as possible. Caeiro sought a direct experience of the objects before him. As such it is not surprising to find that Caeiro has been called an anti-intellectual, anti-Romantic, anti-subjectivist, anti-metaphysical He is in this sense very unlike his creator Fernando Pessoa: Pessoa was besieged by metaphysical uncertainties; these were, to a large extent, the cause of his unhappiness; not so Caeiro: his attitude is anti-metaphysical; he avoided uncertainties by adamantly clinging to a certainty: his belief that there is no meaning behind things.
Things, for him, simply—are. Caeiro represents a primal vision of reality, of things. He is the pagan incarnate. Indeed, Caeiro was not simply a pagan but paganism itself.
The critic Jane M. Sheets sees the insurgence of Caeiro—who was Pessoa's first major heteronym—as essential in founding the later poetic personas : By means of this artless yet affirmative anti-poet, Caeiro, a short-lived but vital member of his coterie, Pessoa acquired the base of an experienced and universal poetic vision. After Caeiro's tenets had been established, the avowedly poetic voices of Campos, Reis and Pessoa himself spoke with greater assurance.
Reis, both a character and a heteronym of Fernando Pessoa himself,  sums up his philosophy of life in his own words, admonishing, "See life from a distance. Never question it. There's nothing it can tell you. He is a modern pagan who urges one to seize the day and accept fate with tranquility.
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The seeker will find in all things the abyss, and doubt in himself. Believing in the Greek gods , yet living in a Christian Europe, Reis feels that his spiritual life is limited and true happiness cannot be attained. This, added to his belief in Fate as a driving force for all that exists, as such disregarding freedom, leads to his epicureanist philosophy, which entails the avoidance of pain, defending that man should seek tranquility and calm above all else, avoiding emotional extremes. Where Caeiro wrote freely and spontaneously, with joviality, of his basic, meaningless connection to the world, Reis writes in an austere, cerebral manner, with premeditated rhythm and structure and a particular attention to the correct use of the language when approaching his subjects of, as characterized by Richard Zenith, "the brevity of life, the vanity of wealth and struggle, the joy of simple pleasures, patience in time of trouble, and avoidance of extremes".
In his detached, intellectual approach, he is closer to Fernando Pessoa's constant rationalization, as such representing the orthonym's wish for measure and sobriety and a world free of troubles and respite, in stark contrast to Caeiro's spirit and style. As such, where Caeiro's predominant attitude is that of joviality, his sadness being accepted as natural "My sadness is a comfort for it is natural and right. Of the three heteronyms he is the one who feels most strongly, his motto being 'to feel everything in every way.
As a result, his mood and principles varied between violent, dynamic exultation, as he fervently wishes to experience the entirety of the universe in himself, in all manners possible a particularly distinctive trait in this state being his futuristic leanings, including the expression of great enthusiasm as to the meaning of city life and its components and a state of nostalgic melancholy, where life is viewed as, essentially, empty.
One of the poet's constant preoccupations, as part of his dichotomous character, is that of identity: he does not know who he is, or rather, fails at achieving an ideal identity. Wanting to be everything, and inevitably failing, he despairs. Unlike Caeiro, who asks nothing of life, he asks too much. In his poetic meditation 'Tobacco Shop' he asks:. Mensagem ,  written in Portuguese, is a symbolist epic made up of 44 short poems organized in three parts or Cycles: . The first two poems "The castles" and "The escutcheons" draw inspiration from the material and spiritual natures of Portugal.
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Each of the remaining poems associates to each charge a historical personality. Ultimately they all lead to the Golden Age of Discovery. Pessoa brings the reader to the present as if he had woken up from a dream of the past, to fall in a dream of the future: he sees King Sebastian returning and still bent on accomplishing a Universal Empire. The third Cycle, called "O Encoberto" "The Hidden One" , refers to Pessoa's vision of a future world of peace and the Fifth Empire which, according to Pessoa, is spiritual and not material, because if it were material England would already have achieved it.
The Hidden One represents the fulfillment of the destiny of mankind, designed by God since before Time, and the accomplishment of Portugal. King Sebastian is very important, indeed he appears in all three parts of Mensagem. He represents the capacity of dreaming, and believing that it's possible to achieve dreams. One of the most famous quotes from Mensagem is the first line from O Infante belonging to the second Part , which is Deus quer, o homem sonha, a obra nasce which translates roughly to "God wishes, man dreams, the work is born".
This poem refers to Ulysses , king of Ithaca , as Lisbon's founder recalling an ancient Greek myth. The articles disclose Pessoa as a connoisseur of modern European literature and an expert of recent literary trends.
On the other hand, he does not care much for a methodology of analysis or problems in the history of ideas. The philosophical notes of the young Pessoa, mostly written between and , illustrate his debt to the history of Philosophy more through commentators than through a first-hand protracted reading of the Classics, ancient or modern.
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Such pantheist transcendentalism is used by Pessoa to define the project that "encompasses and exceeds all systems"; to characterize the new poetry of Saudosismo where the "typical contradiction of this system" occurs; to inquire of the particular social and political results of its adoption as the leading cultural paradigm; and, at last, he hints that metaphysics and religiosity strive "to find in everything a beyond". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the band, see Alexander Search band. This name uses Portuguese naming customs : the first or maternal family name is Nogueira and the second or paternal family name is Pessoa.
Portugal portal Europe portal Literature portal Poetry portal Biography portal. In Pessoa, Fernando Manuela Parreira da Silva. Geerdts, letter to Dr. Faustino Antunes , 10 April Richard Zenith. Edited and with an introduction By Josiah Blackmore. Leadbeater, C. She traveled to Switzerland in November , with her daughter and son-in-law, recently married. Retrieved 13 February In Pessoa, Fernando. Die Dinge, wie er sie sieht, sind als was sie scheinen. Sein Pan-Deismus basiert auf einer Ding- Metaphysik , die in der modernen Dichtung des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts noch Schule machen sollte.
The things, as he sees them, are as they seem.
His pandeism is based on a metaphysical thing, which should still become a school of thought under the modern seal of the twentieth century. Athenaeum , January Portuguese Studies. Winter Luso-Brazilian Review.
XLIV : — Howes, , p. Oporto: Laboratorios Bial, The differential diagnosis of liver colic. Accordingly, they stopped being written in BP compare Italian spelling standards , but continued to be written in other Portuguese-speaking countries. Only in a small number of words is the consonant silent in Brazil and pronounced elsewhere or vice versa, as in the case of BP fato , but EP facto. However, the new Portuguese language orthographic reform led to the elimination of the writing of the silent consonants also in the EP, making now the writing system virtually identical in all of the Portuguese-speaking countries,.
However, BP has retained those silent consonants in a few cases, such as detectar "to detect". These spelling differences are due to genuinely different pronunciations. The variant spellings are necessary in those cases because the general Portuguese spelling rules mandate a stress diacritic in those words, and the Portuguese diacritics also encode vowel quality. By Portuguese spelling rules, that sound can be written either as j favored in BP for certain words or g favored in EP.
The linguistic situation of the BP informal speech in relation to the standard language is controversial. Accordingly, the formal register of Brazilian Portuguese has a written and spoken form. The written formal register FW is used in almost all printed media and written communication, is uniform throughout the country and is the "Portuguese" officially taught at school. The spoken formal register FS is essentially a phonetic rendering of the written form.
FS is used in very formal situations, such as speeches or ceremonies or when reading directly out of a text. While FS is necessarily uniform in lexicon and grammar, it shows noticeable regional variations in pronunciation. The main and most general i. To be noted that these characteristics are also present in other varieties of Portuguese:. Modern linguistic studies have shown that Brazilian Portuguese is a topic -prominent or topic- and subject-prominent language.
In fact, in the Portuguese language, the anticipation of the verb or object at the beginning of the sentence, repeating it or using the respective pronoun referring to it, is also quite common, e. This kind of construction, however, is often used in European Portuguese. Brazilian grammars traditionally treat this structure similarly, rarely mentioning such a thing as topic. Nevertheless, the so-called anacoluthon has taken on a new dimension in Brazilian Portuguese. In colloquial language, this kind of anacoluto may even be used when the subject itself is the topic, only to add more emphasis to this fact, e.