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Vuelva si gusta, please turn over. Vuestro, vuestra, your. Cristobal, Christopher. Speaking correctly is to speak according to established rules, as regards both the pronunciation of letters, syllables and words, and the arrangement and combination of these words among themselves. Writing correctly is to write in conformity to the rules and usage adopted by the best writers. We shall first consider words as sounds, show the letters that form them, and succinctly give the rules most proper to fix their pronunciation. Considering them afterwards as signs of our thoughts, we shall examine their nature, and their accidental variations, the order they observe between themselves, and the rules of their union.

Most grammarians treat separately upon the rules of syn- tax. It has appeared to us more methodical, precise and sim- ple, to place these rules in the chapters relating to each kind of words. From this it follows, however, that the examples we give for the understanding of the rules sometimes precede the knowledge, which they suppose of certain parts of speech.

But those examples are always accompanied by the transla- tion; which greatly diminishes a slight inconvenience, which a second reading of the grammar will remove, and which is abundantly compensated by the advantage of avoiding fre- quent repetitions and references, a multiplicity of which fatigues and discourages beginners. Words, considered as sounds, are formed of letters and syllables.

The only syllables that require explanation are guc,gui; que, qui; we shall speak of them at the letter u, next page, in which all the difficulty lies. The Spanish language reckons twenty-eight letters. They are called vowels, because they have a pcri'ect sound of themselves, without being joined to other letters. In pronouncing the letters, lay the stress upon the vowels marked with the acute accent. This letter is pronounced as ah in English. Ex Jlmar, to love; alba, dawn. This letter is pronounced as a in the alphabet in En- glish.

Eclipse, eclipse; ve, see thou. Before n, r, s, z, in the same syllable, e is pro- nounced more open, as in the English words, care, snare. On the contrary, in vcrisimil, probable, and sim- ilar cases, it is close, because e, in this last word, forms a part of the first syllable, and r begins the second.

This vowel is pronounced as e in English, except when it is marked with the acute accent, then it is long, and pronounced like ce in English, as in the words, todavia, yet; arisen, origin; silaba, syllable. The o is generally pronounced as in English; it is, However, necessary to observe, that it is sometimes open, sometimes close, and sometimes long. It is open, 1st, in words of one syllable, when it is not immediately followed by another vowel, and before , and r at the end of a syllable.

At the end of words when it is ac- cented; for example, in the third person of the singular of the preterite delinite of regular and several irregular verbs. Amo, he loved; temio, he feared; sitbio, he went up. And this o must necessarily be distinguished by the pronun- ciation and the accent in the first conjugation, so as not to confound the first person of the present of the indicative dmo, I love, with the third of the preterite definite, amo, he loved.

It is close when o ends a syllable of words of two or more syllables; Ex. Doila, Mistress; cache, coach; cochero, coach- man. In other cases it is close. U is pronounced oo. This letter is sometimes a vowel and sometimes a consonant. It is also a vowel, when it is a conjunctive particle. Pan y dgua, bread and water.

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In almost every other case it is a consonant, as in sdya, petti- coat; yerro, error; yugo, yoke; SLC. A diphthong is the union of two vowels expressing a dou- ble sound, and pronounced by a single emission of the voice these are sixteen in number: ai or ay. When in these combinations the i and are accent- j as in brio, efectua, each vowel forms a distinct syllable. B, in the beginning of a word, is always pronounced as in English.

See Obs. These two letters are pronounced as in English in the word check; as cJiico, small; chocolate, chocolate. In words derived from the ancient languages, it sounds like k, as Charibdis, Mdchisedech. D is pronounced in the beginning of a word, as in English; but when the d is between two vowels, it is as soft asTTie th in the words though, the. Dado, a dye; dtdp, finger. F is pronounced as in English. G is pronounced as in English before a, o, u. It is guttural before e.

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Filosofia, philosophy; Icdt'ro, theatre jFlladu'ljia, Philadelphia. J is pronounced guttural before all the vo-. The K is admitted only in foreign words, and is pro- nounced as in English. This letter is pronounced as in English. Llciga, wound; lleno, full ; -cabdllo, horse; llegdr, to arrive; Hover, to rain ; lluvia, rain. Senor, Sir ; nincz, childhood ; ensendr, to teach. P and Q are pronounced as in English. R preserves in Spanish its natural pronunciation. S is always pronounced hard, like double ss, even be- tween two vowels, as in assembly.

The Spaniards often confound the sound of this letter with that of b; but the Academy disapproves of it, and re- commends that it should be pronounced as the English and French. X is pronounced like s when followed by a conso- nant, and it is lightly sounded s when followed by ce, ci. 2014.12.01

It is pronounced like ks when it is found between two vowels, as examindr, exisiir, sexo. In a few words ending in x, it is somewhat guttural. B The x is not now used as a guttural letter; the j is used in its place before the vowels a, o, it, and the g before c and i.

The Z is only used now before a, o, u, and is pro- nounced like the c before e and i. The Spanish Academy, conforming to the pronunci- ation, has suppressed double consonants, when one alone is pronounced. In the Spanish books, printed within a few years, the double letters U, ss, ff, bb, Sec. But as Spanish books less modern have not followed fixed rules as respects not only doubling the consonants, but also the orthography, when the pronunciation does not indi- cate it in an evident manner, we inform beginners, 1st that ought to have recourse to the latest Dictionaries, though it is to be regretted that these have as yet been printed and reprinted in England anid in the United States most careless- ly in this important point of view, because it may be suppo- sed that their authors have generally adopted the orthogra- S'iy of the Spanisli Academy; 2d.

Some writers use the j entirely for the guttural sound, and never the g nor x; but we follow the decisions of the Academy and not the whims of every schemer. X, having had till lately the guttural sound, was confounded with g, before e, t; and with the j, which is always guttural before all vowels. Instead of looking in the Dictionary for alvedrio, ferttfa, 9, quclndo, ztlo, ch'imia, Sec.

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See Syllabical Ta- ble and Observations, page Orthographical alterations made by the Royal Acad- emy of Madrid, and now generally adopted by Spanish, writers. In the micj- d! Bla, ble, Sec. There is but one long syllable in each Spanish word. It is generally indicated by the acute accent placed upon the vow- el. But this accent is suppressed, when the long syllable may be otherwise known, except in certain cases where use requires it should be preserved.

The following are the principal rules established by the Spanish Academy, for the use or suppression of the accent upon the vowel of the long syllable. The monosyllable must not be accented, because it is long from its nature. We accent 1st. The accent is suppressed in words of many syllables terminated by only one vowel, because their penullima is long from its nature.

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In verbs, in the first and third person of the singular of the perfect and future of the indicative, the last syllable is long, and receives the accent. The accent lemains, lowing tlie x had not the circumflex accent over it, so A. The Spanish Academy, in the two last editions of their Dictionary, printed in and , and in their last improved Treatise on Orthography, have used, instead of the guttural x, the lettt-r A before the vowels ja, o, u; and the letter g, before e and i; but some writers use j r before all the vowels.

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The x is prcscivel only in host: words, in which it is pronounced as. The x has also ' been changed into an in all the instances in which it is followed by another con- i it. The object of the Academy, in all the foregoing alterations, has been to simplify the orthography, and make it conform to the pronunciation as nearly as possible; there- fore we h. It is the same with the last syllable of the words allci, there; cafe, coffee; dcjo, he left; Peru, Bercebu, Tribu, Tribe. In Spanish words of more than two syllables, the two last are often short. We call words of this kind, esdrujulos, dactyles.

Some of them, as cumara, chamber; espiritu, spirit; santisimo, most holy, take the accent upon the ante- penultima, which is accented in the same manner in those verbs which are made esdrujulos by the annexed pronoun, as mirame, look at me; oyeme, hear me; which, without the adjunction of the pronoun, would be written without an accent, mira, look; oye, hear. Others, compounded of a verb followed by two pronouns, and many adverbs, terminat- ed in mentc, have the accent upon the syllable preceding the anlcpenultima.

Finally, certain adverbs in menle, derived from words esdrujulos, receive the accent upon the fifth syllable, reckoning from the last. The first and third persons of the singular of the perfects of the verbs deviate from this rule, since they al- ways have, as we have said, the last syllable long and ac- cented.

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Words terminating in y preceded by a vowel, which forms a diphthong, have no accent; their last syllable is al- ways long.